X plane 9 mac joystick

Report post. Posted July 7, Hi fellas, New here. Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Posted July 8, Hi MannyS, and welcome to our forum. Posted July 9, Hi Garrett, It's pilot's error Which I reversed in order ;- Now it works. Thanks for replying! Create an account or sign in to comment You need to be a member in order to leave a comment Create an account Sign up for a new account in our community.

Register a new account. Sign in Already have an account? Sign In Now. Our X-Plane peripherals have been chosen for their high-quality, good performance, and complete compatibility. CH Products are the recommended flight controllers by the creators of X-Plane. Hardware for X-Plane. X-Force Computers: Full PCs from X-Force Custom computers from X-Force provide a solid and high performance base configuration, with the ability to customize many of the internal components for even more performance as your budget allows. If this happens, you will need to open the Flight Configuration screen and start a new flight.

If only it were so easy in the real world! To land the plane you must first locate an airport and runway. Make sure the Starts button is toggled to Runway, then pick you desired distance from the drop down menu.


The goal is to be around stalling speed about 50 knots in the Cessna right at touchdown for the smoothest landing. As you near the runway, cut the throttle completely and pitch the nose up about 7 degrees to gently land the plane. Apply the brakes to come to a complete stop. To operate a button, just click it and release. To operate a switch, do the same to change its position.

For example, to bring the landing gear down on planes that are able to , click with the landing gear switch. Of course, this control will look different in different aircraft. Keep in mind that the g key could also be used or a joystick button could be assigned to toggle the gear. Click repeatedly for greater movements. To easily see the controls within the cockpit that the mouse can operate, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show clickable regions in the cockpit. This will draw green boxes around the areas of the instrument panel that can be manipulated with the mouse.

This will allow you to see the whole of the cockpit. Alternatively, you can use the up, down, left, and right arrow keys to move your view around in the 2-D panel view. To get a quick description of the instruments in the panel, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show instrument instructions in the cockpit. Avionics in most airplanes utilize twin concentric knobs that allow the pilot to tune the radio.

For example, there will typically be a large knob on the surface of the radio, with a smaller knob sticking out from the large one. For example, imagine that the COM1 radio the communications radio number 1 needed to be tuned to In a real aircraft, the pilot would turn the big, lower knob until was visible in the window, then turn the small, upper knob until 00 was visible.

X-Plane is set up the same way. When hovering the mouse in the vicinity of one of the radio tuning knobs, two counter-clockwise arrows will appear on the left of the knob and two clockwise arrows on the right. The arrows closest to the knob are physically smaller than those on the outside-these adjust the decimal portion of the frequency. The outside arrows are larger and adjust the integer portion of the frequency. You can change your view of the aircraft using the View menu, or by using the keyboard shortcuts listed on the right side of each option in the View menu.

Using the menus or the appropriate keyboard shortcuts, you can select a view or modify your current view. The controls for view selection affect the type of view that you are using. For instance, you may choose to be in the cockpit, looking forward at the instrument panel, or you may select an external view, perhaps where you look at your aircraft from the point of view of the nearest air traffic control tower. View selection controls are described in Table 5.

After selecting some view, you can modify the view using translation moving left, right, fore, or aft , rotation spinning about your point of focus , or zoom changing the angle of view. The default keyboard shortcuts for these effects are listed in Table 5. In this mode, you can move your view around the cockpit in one of a few ways:. This mode leaves the mouse free to click on things in the cockpit without affecting where you are looking.

In 3-D cockpit mode, you can use the keyboard shortcuts or the View menu itself to change where you are looking. These are described in Table 5. Quick Look allows you to set up a view just the way you like it, and then save it as a hot key or command. Then, in the future, whenever you press that key on the keyboard or button on your joystick, as the case may be , you can go right back to that view again. Note that the Quick Looks are aircraft-specific preferences. This means that your Quick Look views in the Cessna do not interfere with your views in the King Air, and so on.

This can take some time to set up and if you do it often, it can get tedious. The solution, then, is to set up a Quick Look. Note that the Num Lock must be on in order to do this. Now, no matter how your view changes, when you press the shortcut for Quick Look 1 by default, Num Pad 1 , your head position, orientation and zoom goes right back to your memorized view of the throttle quadrant. When pressing the Ctrl key along with any of those numbers, you will store your current view to be recalled later by that number key. Quick Looks are not just for 3-D cockpit mode, either.

Configuring Flight Controls

X-Plane has the capability to fly an aircraft using artificial intelligence AI. The AI system can handle all aspects of flying your aircraft, including taxiing around the airport, take off and landing. Click Aircraft, then select A. Flies Your Aircraft. Furthermore, this is an excellent way to practice tuning radios. In addition, you can have the AI control your view by opening the Aircraft menu and selecting A.

Controls Your Views. If you need help with a certain aspect of the simulator, open the menu and check for a question mark icon in the right corner. Click on the icon to open a webpage with additional information and instructions about the screen you are currently viewing. In each case, you can save the flight and replay it yourself, or you can upload it to the Internet for others to see. It also includes information on the environmental conditions of the flight, including cloud conditions, temperature, and time of day. Furthermore, any other aircraft you have loaded will also be noted.

This is especially useful for quickly loading and practicing a specific type of approach, or for recreating a specific combat situation. To load a situation in order to fly it again, open the File menu and click Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Situations button.

If you do not see your file in any of the lists, you can also click the Open Saved Flight Not Listed button to open a file browser window to navigate to the file, wherever you saved it. Click on the. This file is only viewable in X-Plane, but because it is so complete, you can change your view as much as you like while replaying. To load a replay, open the File menu as before, but select Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Replay button.

In addition to file types readable only by X-Plane, you can also create more universally readable movies. The downside to these movie files is that they record exactly what you see when you record them, and they do not record sound. After recording the movie, you can edit it in a program like iMovie installed on new Macs by default or Windows Live Movie Maker. In choosing a frame rate, know that videos produced at 15 frames per second will look jittery. Film and television use 24 and 30 frames per second, respectively.

Your movie file can be played back on virtually any computer. If the appropriate software is not installed on the computer you want to play the file on, you can get a free cross-platform multimedia player from the VideoLAN Organization. The final method of saving or sharing your flight is to take a simple screenshot. In addition to being able to save replays for later playback as described in the section Saving and Sharing Your Flight above , you can visualize your flight up to your present location in a few different ways.

The path taken by an aircraft up to its current location can always be seen as a trail behind the aircraft when you toggle the 3-D flight path on. Cycling it again will give a semi-transparent black bar extending from the flight path to the ground seen in Figure 5. Cycling the path once more will turn off the flight path lines. The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location.

  • 3 Answers from the Community.
  • pdf reader and creator for mac;
  • cool apps for mac computer.
  • X-Plane 11 Desktop Manual | X-Plane.
  • restaurant floor plans free download for mac;
  • unire video con mac free!

You can replay your flight, from the last time you loaded an aircraft or a location up to your current location, by toggling the replay mode on. In the top of the window, you will see shuttle controls to listed left to right:. Additionally, you can click the shuttle slider and drag it to quickly jump around in the playback. The final method of visualizing a flight is to load information from a flight data recorder FDR.

This is useful primarily in accident investigation and re-creation. You can load. Then you will be greeted with the standard replay shuttle buttons with which you can replay the flight. X-Plane models flight by breaking an aircraft down into a number of little pieces and finding the forces acting on each piece.

With some wind and turbulence turned on in the Weather screen, you can even see the pseudo-random velocity vector flow field around the airplane. The velocity vectors seen are the actual vectors interacting with the aircraft, and the force vectors the green lines coming off the plane are the actual forces acting on the plane—nothing is just for show here.

Illustrating the forces acting on a Baron The green bars extending from the control surfaces of the aircraft indicate how much lift each section of the surface is generating; longer bars represent greater force. The red bars, likewise, represent drag, and the yellow bars represent lift from vertical control surfaces. The flow field around a Baron The vector popping out of each point around the airplane shows if the air is being pushed up, down, fore, or aft or, for that matter, side to side by the rudder or vertical stabilizer compared to the speed and direction of the center of gravity of the airplane.

Additionally, these on-screen visual representations provide no numerical data. The text file will include angles of attack, forces, velocities and additional data for that instant of your flight. X-Plane is the most comprehensive and powerful flight simulator available. As such, there are a great number of features available that go beyond simply taking off, flying around, and landing. These include tools like the logbook and checklists, and features like equipment failures and damage modeling. Each time an aircraft is flown in X-Plane, the program logs the flight time in a digital logbook.

Inside this text file are the following details of previous flights:. Although AI aircraft will always follow the guidance of the air traffic control, they will also work around your aircraft if you are not interacting with the ATC. You will only be able to hear the air traffic control chatter if ATC audio output is enabled; to confirm this is the case, open the Settings screen, then click Sound. All interactions with the air traffic control occur via the on-screen ATC window. To access this feature, simply press Enter Return on the keyboard.

You can also program a button on a joystick to access this screen or click the headset icon in the menu. In order to make a request or hear from the air traffic controllers, you must have your COM 1 radio tuned to the proper frequency for the request. Filing a flight plan is independent of any controller, so that option is always available. However, once the flight plan is filed, you must tune to the Clearance Delivery, Ground, or Tower frequencies if available, in that order as in the real world to get clearance for takeoff.

After you get clearance, you tune to the Ground if available or Tower frequencies for your taxi clearance. To see these frequencies, as well as other important airport information, click on the airport in the Map window, then on Details in the box that opens. You can always tune your radios by hand, but you can also auto-tune your COM1 radio by clicking on any line in the ATC list. Figure 6. As in the real world, any ATC interaction begins with filing a flight plan. Click that button to open the Flight Plan window shown in Figure 6.

You may specify an airline and a flight number if desired. The starting airport will already be filled in, but you must enter your destination airport code, as well as your planned cruising enroute altitude. The Flight Plan window. It will help you through each step in the proper order and give you hints if you get off track. Tune your COM1 radio to Remember you can do this by hand, by clicking on the line in the list of controllers, or, if auto-tune is enabled, it will happen automatically.

You now have a flight plan in the system. If you wish to change your mind, you can return to the flight plan dialog in the same way and update it. As in the real world, you must wait for them to finish talking before you can talk. You must also respond within a reasonable amount of time or they will repeat their instructions. Click Request Taxi to call ground to receive a taxi clearance. Acknowledge the clearance as described above and then look around you. Where the arrows stop, you must also stop and wait for further instructions.

Taxi to where the arrows are taking you. When you reach the side of the runway, ground will instruct you to contact the tower. Read back the command and then tune to the tower frequency of Check in with this new controller. If there are aircraft using the runway, you will have to wait until they are done.

This may take some time! At that time,. Tower will call you and give you your takeoff clearance. Respond and then depart. Unless otherwise instructed, fly the runway heading up to your cleared altitude of 3, feet. At some point, you will be handed off to the center controller on Check in as you did before. Continue on your heading and altitude and eventually Center will begin vectoring you to an approach at your destination of KBFI.

X-Plane has the ability to display a simple checklist in the simulator. To load a check list, open the File menu and click Open Checklist. Open it and you will see the checklist displayed line-by-line in the checklist window. You can use the forward and back buttons to go to the next and previous lines, respectively. If you prefer to see the text file all at once rather than line-by-line as in the checklist view , you can select Open Text File from the File menu and then load a file in the manner discussed above. However, by opening the Settings screen and clicking on General, you can enable the option to Remove flying surfaces when over speed or over G limits.

An airplane can typically stay in the air at very high weights, but it will have a hard time getting off the ground initially. Additionally, moving the center of gravity forward left on the slider makes the plane behave more like a dart, and moving the center of gravity aft right on the slider makes the plane more unstable, and potentially unflyable. Flying a plane with the center of gravity far aft is like shooting an arrow backwards—it wants to flip around with the heavy end in the front and the fins in the back.

X-Plane can simulate countless aircraft systems failures. You can access this feature while in the Flight Configuration screen by clicking on an aircraft icon, then the Customize button, then the Failures button. If the Set global mean time between failures box is checked, the simulator will use the value to the right to determine how often, on average, each piece of equipment will fail. Since the airplane has a few hundred pieces of hardware, that means a failure might occur every 5 to 20 hours or so.

Checking this box essentially allows the possibility of random and unexpected failures. The World section of the Failures window controls things outside of the airplane, such as bird strikes and airport equipment failures. The other categories and subcategories in this window let the user set the frequency of specific failures for hundreds of different aircraft systems.

Many of the options allow you to specify a time, speed, or other condition at which they will fail. A smoke trail, as might be used by an aerobatic airplane in an airshow, can be enabled behind your aircraft. You can assign a different key by following the instructions in Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts.

Hardware for X-Plane | X-Plane

This is seen most often for users running at standard speed, but failing to maintain 20 frames per second. The result is that the physics are integrating in slow-motion in order to avoid destabilizing from the low framerate. Thus, if you need real-time simulation, you must run the simulator at 20 fps or faster. In commercial aircraft, a nosewheel tiller is used to more accurately align the nosewheel to the taxi lines, and to get the aircraft safely docked at jetways. You can assign an axis on your joystick to control this tiller by opening the Settings screen, going to Joystick and, in one of the drop-down menus in the Axis tab, selecting nosewheel tiller.

X-Plane The additional system requirements for VR are:. Note that no Intel GPUs are supported. In addition, you may need to enable foreign apps in the VR system settings. Click on SteamVR under the Tools section in the left sidebar, then the install button. As long as your headset is attached and your GPU meets minimum requirements , there will be a checkbox to enable VR hardware.

Note that if you have the VR Mouse cursor enabled, you may need to completely remove the headset to restore use of the 2d mouse cursor on your computer monitor. From here you can access the main menu, all settings, and any pop up warning screens. The default fleet minus the R—71 is VR-ready but 3rd party aircraft may be less usable in VR unless you use the 3D mouse to interact with the cockpit. In general, the manipulators in and around the aircraft function the way they would it real life. Grab the throttle of the Cessna by pressing and holding the trigger near it. It will light up green, then push or pull the knob to adjust the setting.

Lightly and partially squeeze the VR controller trigger to see a green laser appear. This feature essentially takes traditional manipulation and lets you perform the motion at any distance or angle that is convenient for you. By default, the pilot yoke behaves in a realistic manner—tilt your wrist left or right for roll, and push in or pull out to control pitch. Ergonomic mode behaves slightly differently than real life—it works by tilting your wrist up or down to control pitch, and rolling your wrist left right for roll.

Moving forward and back does nothing. This allows you to keep your hand in a relaxed and comfortable position while you fly and also allows you to be more precise with the controls. You must press the trigger a second time to release it. If you do have hardware rudder pedals, it is up to you to control them.

Move around the aircraft or the world by using teleport: Some parts of the aircraft, such as seats, have a hotspot which will light up and snap you to that location. When you press the button, it zooms your view in so you can see distant things a bit clearer. When you release the button, your view resets. Press the three line button the menu button of the virtual controller to access the menu options. This option is the only supported way to recenter your view inside the cockpit. Within the quick menu is a three-line menu option that opens the main menu so you can access the usual options: Use the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to move around menus and submenus, then use the trigger on the controller to select an option.

The menu option provides access to many of the options from the traditional menu bar. Pop out windows such as ground services, ATC, the map, and more are available from the controller menu by selecting the icon that looks like two window boxes on the left side. You can also bind a joystick button or key to this option. This cursor will function basically the same as a non-VR mouse. VR is more demanding on your computer than simply using the desktop simulator.

If you are not consistently running at least 45 fps in the base desktop sim, you will need to turn rendering settings down. If that does not help, a full restart of the computer often seems to fix many problems with launching VR. That click is being stolen by SteamVR for internal functions. People often call customer support asking about some of the more advanced things that pilots do in the real world—how to navigate, use an autopilot, or fly on instruments.

Hardware for X-Plane

This chapter will cover these areas in a fair amount of detail, but we recommend that, if you are really serious about mastering these facets of aviation, you head down to a local general aviation airport and hire a CFI Certified Flight Instructor for an hour or two. If you have a laptop, by all means bring it along and have the instructor detail these things in practice. There is much more to review here than this manual could ever cover, so a quick search for information on the Internet will also be of assistance.

You have no reference to the ground and are flying over St.


Louis in the middle of an overcast layer. As you might guess, this looks pretty much identical to the view you would have flying over Moscow on instruments. Louis and not over Moscow is to be able to navigate. You can pick from three different modes: Figure 7. The VFR Sectional map is designed for use under visual flight rules. It only shows the information of interest to pilots flying above 18, feet and making use of vector airways that are much longer, based on larger VORs with longer ranges.

The maps provide a lot of information on the area where your aircraft is located, including topography and selectable NAVAIDs. The thick blue and gray lines running across the maps are airways, which are basically like highways in the sky. These vector airways are given names for example, V and are used by air traffic controls to assign clearances. Small airports are indicated by notched circles, while larger airports with are shown as full runway layouts. Airports shown in blue on the VFR sectional map have control towers in the real world.

To move your view around a map, you can click the map and drag. You can also zoom in and out by using your mouse scroll wheel. Additionally, you can use the viewing control buttons located in the top left corner of the map window to alter your view. Use the plus or minus icons to zoom in or out respectively.

Tap the target icon to center the view on the aircraft.

Quick Support Links

This will also lock the map view onto the aircraft so that as you fly, the map will scroll underneath it and the aircraft will stay in the center. Drag anywhere on the map to break the lock. In this second case, if the plane is flying south, the top of the map will be south. If the plane banks to the east, the map will automatically rotate and east will now be on top. Click on anything in the map to get more information on it. For example, if you click on your aircraft, the Inspector box will pop up with its name, heading, altitude, speed, and climb angle, most of which you can also edit from within the window.

Clicking on an airport will allow you to pick a new runway or final approach, or view details such as weather conditions and communications frequencies. In the right side of the map window you can change what is displayed on the map.

X-Force Computers: Our Partner for Hardware

You can check the boxes to toggle the flight path, a compass rose around your aircraft, or to disable downwind ILS beacons. Non-directional beacons were invented in the late s and consisted of a ground-based transmitter that broadcast a homing signal. A receiver in the aircraft could be tuned to one of about discrete frequencies in order to tune to a particular transmitter.

Although nearly abandoned in the United States, NDBs are still used in many countries around the world. It is for this reason that they are modeled in X-Plane. Very High Frequency Omni-Range navigation or VOR was introduced in the mid—s and represented a large improvement in navigation accuracy. Instead of an NDB that a pilot could home in on, the VOR sends a series of discrete little carrier tones on a main frequency. Each of these carriers is oriented along a different radial from the station, one of just like a compass rose. You can imagine it like the wheel of a bike: Thus, when you are flying along and tune in the main VOR frequency, you then fine tune your navigation display to tell you which of the radials you are flying and also whether the transmitter station is in front of or behind you.

This error could only be due to two factors—either the pilot was not flying along the radial or the wind blew the airplane slightly off of course. Click on the map icon to open a window that will allow you to tune the frequency into your NAV 1 radio automatically.

  1. serial connection mac os x?
  2. Configuring Flight Controls | X-Plane;
  3. Full PCs from X-Force.
  4. Keep in mind that you can also tune the navigation radio built into the GPS, but you may have to hit the flip-flop switch to bring the frequency you just tuned into the active window on top. The vertical line in the center is the reference indicator, and moves to the left and right to indicate where the aircraft is in relation to a chosen radial.

    Select a radial by turning the OBS knob which rotates the compass rose around the instrument; the chosen radial is indicated above the top yellow arrow. Now you can determine where you are in relation to the VOR by finding what radial you are on, or you can enter a radial you want to be on in order to plot your desired course. Keep in mind that all radials are measured as the heading when moving away from a VOR beacon. Determining what radial you are on is simple. The number above the yellow arrow at the top of the CDI is your current radial position.

    To intercept a different radial, look at your map again to determine where you are in relation to the station. If you are inbound to the station, pick the reciprocal on the opposite side of the station from your aircraft. If you are outbound, use the radial your aircraft is currently on. Turn the OBS dial again to enter the desired radial at the top of the circle.

    Most likely the vertical line will be off to one side or the other. This indicates how far you are from your desired radial. To the left and right of the center target the little white circle the instrument displays five dots or short lines on each side. Each of these dots indicates that you are two degrees off of course. Thus, a full scale left deflection of the vertical reference indicates that the aircraft is 10 degrees right of the desired radial. Just remember that as long as you are flying towards the VOR, the line on the CDI indicates the location of the desired course.

    If the reference line is on your left that means that your target radial is on your left, and you should turn that direction. Your aim is to get the vertical line in the center and to stay there, indicating you are flying the desired radial. You have no way of telling if you are 15 miles from the station or 45 miles away. An ILS is therefore made up of two transmitters, a localizer and a glide slope—one for each component of the navigation.

    A localizer LOC transmitter provides lateral guidance to the centerline of a runway. It works by sending out two signals on the same channel, one of which modulates at 90 Hz and the other of which modulates at Hz. One of these signals is sent out slightly to the left of the runway, while the other sent out slightly to the right of it. If an aircraft is picking up more of the tone modulated at Hz, it is off to the left. If it is picking up more of the tone modulated at 90 Hz, it is off to the right.

    The course deviation indicator or CDI in the instrument panel then indicates this so that the pilot can correct it. When both tones are being received in equal amounts, the craft is lined up with the physical centerline of the runway. The glide slope beacon functions similarly to the localizer, sending out two tones that have the same frequency, but different modulations. The difference is that the glide slope tells the plane that it is either too high or too low for its distance from the runway. The ILS will allow a pilot to fly on instruments only to a point that is a half mile from the end of the runway at feet depending on the category of the ILS above the ground.

    If the runway cannot be clearly seen at that point the pilot is prevented from executing a normal landing. The Global Positioning System was first created for the US military and introduced to the public in the early s. This system consists of a series of satellites orbiting the Earth which continuously send out signals telling their orbital location and the time the signal was sent.

    A GPS receiver can tune in to the signals they send out and note the time it took for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver for several different satellites at once. Since the speed at which the signals travel is known, it is a simple matter of arithmetic to determine how far from each satellite the receiver is. Triangulation or, rather, quadrangulation is than used to determine exactly where the receiver is with respect to the surface of the Earth.

    In an aircraft, this information is compared with the onboard database to determine how far it is to the next airport, navigational aid NAVAID , waypoint, or whatever. The concept is simple, but the math is not. GPS systems have turned the world of aviation on its head, allowing everyday pilots to navigate around with levels of accuracy that were unimaginable 20 years ago. While the intricate workings of the various GPS radios are complex, the basic principals are pretty consistent. On the Garmin , entry is performed using the control knob on the bottom right of the unit. The databases in these radios are not limited simply to the identifiers of the airports you may wish to fly to.

    To begin a discussion on instrument flight, we must first discuss why it is so difficult. Rather, the difficulty lies in believing what the instruments are saying. Your body has developed a system of balance and equilibrium that has evolved in humans over millions of years, and forcing your brain to ignore these signals and to believe what the instruments are telling you is very difficult. To put it bluntly, in a real aircraft, your life depends on ignoring your feelings and senses and flying based solely on the information in front of you.

    The gyroscope was invented many decades before aircraft, but its tremendous implications for flying were not realized until the mid- to late—s. The basic principal that they work on is that if you take a relatively heavy object and rotate it at a high rotational velocity it will hold its position in space. You can then mount this stable, rigid gyroscope in an instrument that is fixed to your aircraft and measure the relative motion of the instrument case and thus the airplane about the fixed gyro.

    There are three primary gyroscopic instruments in the panel. They are:. The three primary gyroscopic instruments in the Cessna The AI indicates what attitude the aircraft is flying at—how far the nose is above or below the horizon, as well as how far the wings are banked and in which direction. There are six primary instruments that have become standard in any instrument panel. The airspeed indicator shows the speed at which the aircraft is traveling through the air. In its simplest form, it is nothing more than a spring which opposes the force of the air blowing in the front of a tube attached under the wing or to the nose of the aircraft.

    The attitude indicator informs the pilot of his or her position in space relative to the horizon. This is accomplished by fixing the case of the instrument to the aircraft and measuring the displacement of the case with reference to a fixed gyroscope inside. The altimeter looks somewhat like the face of a clock and serves to display altitude. This is measured by the expansion or contraction of a fixed amount of air acting on a set of springs. As the airplane climbs or descends, the relative air pressure outside the aircraft changes and the altimeter reports the difference between the outside air pressure and a reference, contained in a set of airtight bellows.

    The turn coordinator measures the rate of turn for the aircraft. The instrument is only accurate when the turn is coordinated-that is, when the airplane is not skidding or slipping through the turn. In a car, this results in a turn radius that is larger than that commanded by the driver.

    It results from an aircraft that is banked too steeply for the rate of turn selected. The directional gyro is a simple instrument that points north and thus allows the pilot to tell which way she or he is flying.